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Saturday, October 10, 2015

Variations in King James / Modern English New Testaments clarified by new Greek resource.

Now available in hardcover, paperback, and ebook.

The Ancient Words Greek New Testament provides a merged text of the Alexandrian and the Byzantine textual classics: Stephanus 1550, and, Nestle 1904.  Over 4,000 textual variants between the two text-types are clearly documented, providing a one-source solution for identifying the Greek variants behind the translation of most classic and modern English New Testaments.

The Alexandrian and Byzantine texts, represented by Stephanus 1550 and Nestle 1904, where in agreement, form a common base-text for the Ancient Words Greek New Testament.
Variants between the Alexandrian and Byzantine texts are presented in-line without bias using square brackets [Alexandrian] and parentheses (Byzantine). Thus, both text-types are honored without prejudice, allowing the reader equal and objective access to two of the most respected ancient Greek New Testament base-texts in one convenient document.
The variants among most modern English Bible translations are addressed in the Ancient Words Greek New Testament so the Greek reader can quickly identify and follow the source texts during live teachings or while listening to prerecorded audio.
Stephanus 1550 and Nestle 1904 represent two of the most respected and broad-based Greek source-texts for the English New Testament.  The modern version of the Authorized King James Bible draws its New Testament portions primarily from Stephanus 1550.  Stephanus standardized the chapter-and-verse numbering system used today and Stephanus IV was the chief base-text of the Geneva Bible, making the Stephanus texts the official New Testament Greek source of the Protestant Movement for more than 300 years.  The Alexandrian text-type is represented by Eberhard Nestle's, The New Testament: Text with Critical Apparatus, published by The British And Foreign Bible Society.
Images of ancient papyri and parchments are displayed on the first page of each New Testament book. The photographs of these priceless treasures have been digitally enhanced to make the Greek text more legible.
The 2012 edition of the Dodson Greek-English Lexicon by John Jeffrey Dodson is included to provide concise English definitions for most of the Greek words contained in this compilation.

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660 pages of easy-to-read full 12 point font Greek letters with diacritical markings.  Includes 27 illustrations of ancient papyri and parchments from the first three centuries of the Christian Church - Example below:

Papyrus 20, P. Oxy. 1171
Date: 3rd Century
Princeton University Library
recto, James 2:19-3:2; verso, James 3:3-3:9

Public domain Greek source texts:
Stephanus 1550, Robertus Stephanus – Novum Testamentum, Publisher: Paris, 1550, Third Edition, Author: Robertus Stephanus.  "Robert Estienne (a.k.a. Stephanus) published four Greek New Testaments in the sixteenth century (1546, 1549, 1550, and 1551).  The first three editions of his Novum Testamentum were published in Paris, the fourth in Geneva. His third edition of 1550 was affectionately known as Editio Regia, because of the magnificent Greek font and large folio size of the codex.  Not only the most handsome, the 1550 Stephanus is also the most important of his texts.  This was the first published Greek New Testament to have a textual apparatus.  Stephanus examined 15 manuscripts and listed several of their readings in the margins of his Editio Regia.  Stephanus’ fourth edition was the first to have verse divisions in it, a feature that Stephanus invented to help the reader more easily compare the two Latin translations and the Greek that are found in the fourth edition.  Though the text of the third and fourth editions was virtually identical, the fourth became the basis for the Geneva Bible, the first Bible translation to have verse divisions.  The 1550 Stephanus also became the standard text to be used as a collating base for countless collations of Greek New Testament manuscripts."  Source:  <>
The New Testament: Text with Critical Apparatus was published by The British And Foreign Bible Society (aka. Nestle 1904).  The British And Foreign Bible Society, 146 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C., 1904; now in the public domain.  Eberhard Nestle, May 1, 1851, Stuttgart – March 9, 1913, Stuttgart.
Nestle's text of the Greek New Testament was first published by the Bible Society of Wurttemberg at Stuttgart in 1898.  "The text is the resultant of a collation of three of the principal resensions of the Greek New Testament which appeared in the latter half of the 19th century, viz. those of Tischendorf, editio octava 1869-72 (as reproduced in the 4th edition by Oskar von Gebhardt, 1898); of Westcott and Hort, 1881 (impression of 1895); and of D. Bernhard Weiss, 1894-1900 (second edition 1902).  The readings adopted in the text are those in which at least two of these editions agree.  An exception to this rule has been made in the case of St. John v. 3, 4, and vii. 53-viii. 11.  These passages have been retained in the text, but they are placed within special marks." - from the "Advertisement" of the Greek New Testament, p. v.

Ancient Words Greek New Testament in-line apparatus:
Square brackets [ ] indicate the enclosed variant is contained in Nestle 1904.
Curved brackets ( ) indicate the enclosed variant is contained in Stephanus 1550.
Example: Matthew 1:19, Ἰωσὴφ δὲ ὁ ἀνὴρ αὐτῆς, δίκαιος ὢν καὶ μὴ θέλων αὐτὴν [δειγματίσαι] (παραδειγματίσαι), ἐβουλήθη λάθρᾳ ἀπολῦσαι αὐτήν.
Where only one type of bracket occurs in a verse, the bracketed word, or phrase, is contained only in the source indicated by the type of bracket used.
Example: Δαυεὶδ δὲ (ὁ βασιλεὺς) ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου.
"ὁ βασιλεὺς" occurs in the above verse only in Stephanus 1550.
Asterisks * immediately inside of a bracket indicates that the text was included in the  text of either, Nestle 1904 or Stephanus 1550, with reservations, or as a concession to popular demand for the inclusion of such verses.  The asterisks are not meant to indicate any degree of judgment by the editors of the Ancient Words Greek New Testament.
Example: Luke 24:40, [*(καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν [ἔδειξεν] (ἐπέδειξεν) αὐτοῖς τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τοὺς πόδας.)*]  This verse is contained in both source-texts with the variants indicated within the verse.  However, the asterisk inside the square bracket indicates that verse 40 was presented in Nestle 1904 as a concession.  Because no asterisk appears inside the parentheses, Stephanus 1550 accepts the validity of the verse.

Criteria for recognition of variants in this compilation:
Variants in Greek word order, although rarely changing the English meaning, have generally been noted as variants.  These notations have been included to aid the reader in identifying emphatic phrases and to make the text easier to follow when listening to audio presentations.  Once the simple conventions for identifying the texts by their brackets becomes natural, the eye quickly recognizes and follows the particular source-text of interest.
Minor variants such as spelling differences are generally not addressed.  Examples: [Μωϋσεῖ] (Μωσῇ), [Ἡλείας] (Ἠλίας), [Δαυεὶδ](Δαβὶδ).
Common contractions have also not been noted as variants.  Example: [Διὰ τί] (Διατί).
Capitalization of deific nouns has been honored.  Most early New Testament manuscripts incorporate nomina sacra, making it inappropriate to dishonor the intention of the scribes of the ancient texts, who set the names for the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit apart from the common text.
For the sake of audible transcription most variants that cause disruption to the syllable count, and conspicuous variations in hard consonants, have been noted.  Movable ending ν's and ς's have generally not been included as variants.  A primary consideration in this compilation was to avoid interruption in the natural flow of the text.

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